**Velocity of Efflux**

When a vessel is having a small opening above whom there is
certain level of water, we can calculate the velocity of the water that is coming
out of the opening using this concept. This is nothing but a direct application
of Bernoulli’s theorem.

We can apply that the total energy at the given two points
is always constant.One point of consideration is that the surface of the vessel with a
larger opening and other point in the consideration is having the small opening. Being
the area of the larger par is bigger the
velocity with which it comes down there is negligible.

Similarly being both the parts of the system are open to
atmosphere, both of them are having the same pressure which is equal to
atmospheric pressure. We can prove mathematically that velocity with which the
fluid comes out is equal to the velocity of a freely falling body.

**Time taken to empty the tank**

Basing on the above concept and using the concept of
integration together we can derive the equation for the time taken to empty a
vessel as shown below. Here we are using the concept of equation of continuity
also.

**Venturi Meter**

It is a device using which we can calculate the velocity of
the fluid. It has a pipe with a larger opening which keeps on decreasing and a
particular point the it is having a small opening.

These two points are horizontal to each other and they are
having the same potential energy at the two points. We can apply the law
of conservation of energy concept that
the two points and by applying the equation of continuity together we can
derive the equation for the velocity as shown below.

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